What does 1 Peter 3:22 mean?
ESV: who has gone into heaven and is at the right hand of God, with angels, authorities, and powers having been subjected to him.
NIV: who has gone into heaven and is at God's right hand--with angels, authorities and powers in submission to him.
NASB: who is at the right hand of God, having gone into heaven, after angels and authorities and powers had been subjected to Him.
CSB: who has gone into heaven and is at the right hand of God with angels, authorities, and powers subject to him.
NLT: Now Christ has gone to heaven. He is seated in the place of honor next to God, and all the angels and authorities and powers accept his authority.
KJV: Who is gone into heaven, and is on the right hand of God; angels and authorities and powers being made subject unto him.
NKJV: who has gone into heaven and is at the right hand of God, angels and authorities and powers having been made subject to Him.
Verse Commentary:
Peter concluded the previous verse with a reference to the resurrection of Jesus Christ. He continues in this last verse of chapter 3 by describing where Jesus is right now. Peter was there the day Jesus ascended into heaven. He saw the Savior rise up into the sky with his own eyes. Now Peter reveals where Jesus went and what He is doing.

Jesus is today in heaven in the place of greatest honor at the right hand of God. He was reunited with His Father and remains there for now. God has given to Jesus a position of ultimate authority in the universe. He reigns over angels, authorities, and powers, including both human and supernatural powers. In fact, Jesus reigns over all of creation (Colossians 1:15–20).

With this verse, Peter may be making a connection to earlier passages in his letter, where Christians are commanded to be subject to every human authority. We can do this knowing that, in the end, Christ holds the ultimate authority over all.
Verse Context:
1 Peter 3:8–22 addresses all believers, commanding Christians to be unified and to refuse to seek revenge when wronged. Peter quotes from both David and Isaiah to show that God’s people have always been called to reject evil and to do good. This is true even when we are suffering. In fact, it may be God’s will for His people to suffer, in part, to demonstrate His power. Our good example can convict others into repentance. Christ, too, suffered, died, was resurrected, and ascended to power and authority in heaven.
Chapter Summary:
Peter continues teaching about Christian submission to human authorities, now addressing Christian wives. Believing wives must be subject to their own husbands, even if the husband is not a follower of Christ. By doing so, they might win them to Christ through the example of their own changed lives and hearts. Christian husbands must honor their wives. All believers must live in unity together and refuse to seek revenge. In part, God means to use our hopeful response to suffering to provoke the world to see His power in us. Christ, too, suffered and then died, was resurrected, and ascended to heaven.
Chapter Context:
Peter’s letter to persecuted Christians is about how to endure suffering for faith in Christ. Thus far, he has assured Christians that their future is secure in eternity with God. We are His holy people, set apart for His specific purposes. Because of this, it matters that we live out that truth, even when we suffer. Christians are called to live in submission to every human authority, including kings, governors, and slave masters.
Book Summary:
Some 30 years after the resurrection of Jesus, Christians are facing greater persecution for their faith. How should they respond? How should we respond to suffering today? The apostle Peter writes this letter both to comfort believers and to encourage them to stay strong. He urges them to put all their hope in their perfect future with Christ, and to obey and trust Him in the present, even in their suffering. Christ suffered greatly; now the Christ-followers have the opportunity to follow Him even in this, showing His grace and power in their hopefulness, obedience, and faith.
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