What does 1 Corinthians 2:10 mean?
ESV: these things God has revealed to us through the Spirit. For the Spirit searches everything, even the depths of God.
NIV: these are the things God has revealed to us by his Spirit. The Spirit searches all things, even the deep things of God.
NASB: For to us God revealed them through the Spirit; for the Spirit searches all things, even the depths of God.
CSB: Now God has revealed these things to us by the Spirit, since the Spirit searches everything, even the depths of God.
NLT: But it was to us that God revealed these things by his Spirit. For his Spirit searches out everything and shows us God’s deep secrets.
KJV: But God hath revealed them unto us by his Spirit: for the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God.
NKJV: But God has revealed them to us through His Spirit. For the Spirit searches all things, yes, the deep things of God.
Verse Commentary:
Before the foundation of the world, God planned to bring believers into a relationship with Himself based on love. That relationship would only be possible, however, by the death of His Son on the cross to pay for our sin.

These secrets of God's wisdom could not be worked out by human wisdom, Paul has written. They must be revealed to humans to be understood and believed by us. How could we possibly believe such a thing, though, even if it is true?

Paul now turns to the means God uses to allow us to come to faith in Him. It's not a mechanical process, though. It's a person, whom Paul will describe as the Spirit of God. God reveals the truthfulness of these things to us through His Spirit, making it possible for us to believe something we cannot observe with our own physical senses. Evidence can lead us towards God (Psalm 19:1, Romans 1:18–23), but only faith and the Spirit can lead us to accept God (Matthew 7:7–8; John 4:44).

How does the Spirit Himself know these things? Paul describes the Spirit as being in constant search mode, searching even the depths of God. The Spirit bridges the communication gap between ourselves and God. He searches and understands what is spiritual and makes it possible for us to perceive it.

Of course, the Spirit is God, just as Jesus the Son is God. Though three persons with separate roles, they are one God. We call this the Trinity.
Verse Context:
First Corinthians 2:6–16 describes the difference between human wisdom and God's wisdom. Human wisdom is limited to what can be observed and worked out with human reason. Scripture points out the value of reason and knowledge (Colossians 2:8; 2 Timothy 2:15), while demonstrating a difference between what man's mind can achieve and what God's Spirit can reveal. God's wisdom, including His plan to offer salvation through Christ's crucifixion, must be received and believed spiritually through God's Holy Spirit. Without the help of the Spirit, people cannot believe what is spiritual, so they reject all spiritual truth as foolishness. Christians, though, have access to the mind of Christ because of God's Holy Spirit with us.
Chapter Summary:
When Paul first came to Corinth, he did not present the gospel to them with lofty speech and impressive arguments. He presented the truth as simply as he could so their faith would be based on God's power and not human wisdom. Only those with God's Spirit can understand the truths revealed by God, including Christ crucified for human sinfulness. Those without God's Spirit are limited to what can be observed and worked out with human reason. God's Spirit makes it possible for us to understand and believe spiritual things.
Chapter Context:
First Corinthians 2 picks up Paul's train of thought from the middle of the previous chapter. He reminds the Corinthians that he did not make an impressive display of his own speaking skills or knowledge when he first came to them. He wanted their faith to be in God's power, not human wisdom. God's ultimate wisdom can only be understood spiritually, revealed to human beings through God's Spirit. Those without God's Spirit cannot understand spiritual things. As a result, they reject the idea of Christ crucified for human sin as foolish. Through the Spirit, spiritual people have the mind of Christ.
Book Summary:
First Corinthians is one of the more practical books of the New Testament. Paul writes to a church immersed in a city associated with trade, but also with corruption and immorality. These believers are struggling to properly apply spiritual gifts and to resist the ungodly practices of the surrounding culture. Paul's letter gives instructions for real-life concerns such as marriage and spirituality. He also deals with the importance of unity and gives one of the Bible's more well-known descriptions of love in chapter 13.
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